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Enteric Infections

Fiji
Toilet in a village in Fiji that had recently experienced an outbreak of typhoid fever.

Diarrheal diseases, along with typhoid and paratyphoid fever, are among the leading causes of death among children worldwide. While the introduction of clean water and sanitation infrastructure has drastically reduced the burden of some enteric pathogens in the United States and other developed countries, much of the world still suffers from a high burden of disease. Furthermore, certain pathogens continue to circulate and cause outbreaks closer to home.

Research on enteric diseases in the Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases includes:

  • Describing the transmission dynamics and impact of vaccination against rotavirus in the United States and developing countries
  • Developing mathematical and statistical models to estimate the burden of typhoid fever and to predict the impact and cost-effectiveness of typhoid conjugate vaccine strategies across low- and middle-income countries
  • Understanding the predominant routes of transmission and control options for cholera epidemics, past and present
  • Investigating and responding to outbreaks of food-borne disease in Connecticut through FoodNet, FoodCORE and the Emerging Infections Program

The Pitzer Lab focuses on using mathematical and statistical models to describe transmission patterns, estimate the burden, and predict and quantify the impact of interventions targeting enteric pathogens, including rotavirus, Salmonella Typhi, and cholera. The Pitzer lab works closely with collaborators at field sites in Malawi, Bangladesh, and Nepal. Additionally, the Emerging Infections Program works with the Connecticut Department of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to conduct active surveillance for foodborne illness and to investigate and respond to foodborne outbreaks in the state of Connecticut.

Faculty of Interest

  • Professor of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases) and of Pharmacology

    Research Interests
    • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
    • Epidemiology
    • Foodborne Diseases
    • Hepatitis C
    • Injections
    • Public Health
    • Russia
    • Vietnam
    • Global Health
    • HIV Infections
  • Professor of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases); Director, Development Core at Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS; Director, HPV Working Group at Yale; Co-Director, CT Emerging Infections Program at Yale

    Research Interests
    • Epidemiologic Methods
    • Epidemiology
    • HIV
    • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
    • Vaccines
    • Communicable Diseases, Emerging
    • Qualitative Research
    • Human papillomavirus 11

Voluntary and Adjunct

  • Associate Clinical Professor, Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases

    Dr. Matthew Cartter is the State Epidemiologist for the State of Connecticut Department of Public Health. He is an adjunct associate professor in the Department of Community Medicine and Health Care at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine and an associate clinical professor of Epidemiology and Public Health at the Yale University School of Medicine. He teaches a course for Masters in Public Health students on acute disease outbreak investigations at both UConn and Yale. Dr. Cartter is a past president of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. His research interests include the history of epidemics.

    Dr. Cartter is also the Director of the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program (EIP), a joint effort between the State of Connecticut Department of Public Health, the Yale Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, GA. This Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded program is one of eleven programs nationwide that seek to assess, through population-based surveillance, the public health impact of emerging infectious diseases and to evaluate methods for their prevention and control in the community (http://www.cdc.gov/ncpdcid/deiss/eip/index.html).

  • Clinical Professor of Epidemiology

    Research Interests: The epidemiology of infectious diseases of public health import, particularly the relationship between socioeconomic status and these diseases; infectious disease control.

    Dr. Hadler currently is a senior infectious disease and medical epidemiology consultant to the Connecticut and Yale Emerging Infections Programs, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. He is involved in the description of health disparities using socioeconomic measures, and most projects conducted by the Connecticut and Yale EIPs, emphasis on epidemiology and prevention of human papilloma virus-related disease, influenza, and bacterial intestinal and respiratory infections.

    Dr. Hadler’s main research interests are in the epidemiology, prevention and control of infectious diseases of public health importance in the U.S. For 25 years, from 1984-2008, he was the Connecticut State Epidemiologist and director of the state’s infectious disease surveillance and control programs. In that capacity he lead investigations into many infectious disease outbreaks and emerging infectious disease problems such as HIV, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, West Nile virus, anthrax, SARS, shiga-toxin producing E. coli and MRSA, and evaluated the impact of new vaccines on the epidemiology of their target diseases.