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HIV

HIV, the AIDS virus (yellow), infecting a human cell
This human T cell (blue) is under attack by HIV (yellow), the virus that causes AIDS. The virus specifically targets T cells, which play a critical role in the body's immune response against invaders like bacteria and viruses. Image courtesy of Seth Pincus, Elizabeth Fischer and Austin Athman, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. Part of the exhibit Life:Magnified by ASCB and NIGMS.

Since the first diagnosis in the United States in 1982, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has gone on to become a global pandemic with over 35 million people around the world now living with the infection, including more than 1 million people in the US. 

Yale School of Public Health has a long history in research on the disease starting with pioneering efforts in the late 1980s that led to the establishment of one of the first needle exchange programs in the US to stem transmission of the virus through intravenous drug use. In the department, Professor Robert Heimer and Associate Professor Kaveh Khoshnood, were among the team that was involved in the program’s launch. 

Dr. Heimer continues to study HIV and other infections (hepatitis B and C) in the context of the health of injection drug users using a combination of laboratory, operational, behavioral and structural analyses to evaluate interventions to reduce the harms associated with injecting both in the US and in Eastern Europe. Dr. Khoshnood continues his work on the health of drug users in the US and abroad, but his research focuses on a broader range of at risk populations including prisoners, and examines the relationship between HIV, ethics and human rights. 

Research to understand the structural and social determinants of risk for HIV, including mass incarceration, housing instability, and subsidized housing policies is a focus of the work of Professor Linda M. Niccolai and her research methods include surveillance, behavioral epidemiology, and qualitative approaches. She is also the Director of the Development Core for Yale School of Public Health’s Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS (CIRA). 

As part of YSPH’s robust public health modeling concentration, Professor Alison P. Galvani and Associate Professor Ted Cohen, focus their research on mathematical modeling of HIV and other infectious diseases. Dr. Galvani’s research focuses on integrating epidemiology, evolutionary ecology and economics in order to generate predictions about HIV that could not be made by these disciplines alone. Dr. Cohen’s work focuses on the interaction between HIV and tuberculosis (TB) and combines mathematical modeling, fieldwork, and analysis of programmatic data to understand how TB drug-resistance and medical comorbidities such as HIV frustrate current efforts to control epidemics. 

Associate Professor Luke Davis' HIV-related research projects use implementation science to advance integrative models of care for persons living with HIV and related pulmonary complications, especially diagnostic evaluation, case finding, and linkage to care for TB. Capacity-building is built into these projects wherever possible through a Fogarty International Center Pulmonary Complications of AIDS Research Training Grant.

YSPH Dean Sten H. Vermund is another early pioneer in AIDS research and one of the world’s leading experts on HIV prevention. In the mid-1980s, Dean Vermund helped establish the first adolescent health clinic that provided some of the earliest care to HIV-infected youth in New York City. His early showed that HIV was a risk factor for cervical cancer, which motivated routine cervical cancer screening for HIV-infected women worldwide. In 2000, he founded the Centre for Infectious Disease Research, now one of Zambia’s largest NGOs, which currently supports more than 330 clinics that play an instrumental role in the prevention of maternal-fetal HIV transmission and the implementation of antiretroviral therapy. 

Assistant Professor Gregg S. Gonsalves’ research focuses on the use of quantitative models for improving the response to HIV. He is also co-director of the Yale Law School/Yale School of Public Health Global Health Justice Partnership. For more than 20 years, he worked on HIV/AIDS and other global health issues with several organizations, including the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power, the Treatment Action Group, Gay Men’s Health Crisis, and the AIDS and Rights Alliance for Southern Africa. 

Debbie Humphries, clinical instructor, is interested in how community research capacity can strengthen prevention and intervention efforts to address the HIV epidemic, whether globally or in the United States. She is currently working on developing a tool to assess community research capacity, and has piloted the tool in collaboration with CIRA (Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS).

Lauretta Grau, Research Scientist, is also using qualitative and mixed methods studies of the HIV Care Continuum, technology-based interventions to assist in smoking cessation and substance abuse treatment, and the epidemiology of opioid-involved fatalities. She has also led qualitative studies on such topics as the quality of healthcare delivery, repeat medical hospitalizations and access to medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder.

There is an extensive group of research scientists, faculty with secondary appointments in the department and volunteer and adjunct faculty with interests in and doing research on HIV.

Faculty of Interest

  • Associate Professor of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases) and Associate Professor in the Institution for Social and Policy Studies; Co-director, Public Health Modeling Concentration

    Research Interests
    Drug Resistance, Microbial; Epidemiology; Europe, Eastern; Models, Biological; Public Health; South America; Tuberculosis; HIV Infections; Molecular Epidemiology; Africa South of the Sahara

    Dr. Cohen is an infectious disease epidemiologist with a primary research focus on tuberculosis. He is particularly interested in understanding how TB drug-resistance and medical comorbidities such as HIV frustrate current efforts to control epidemics, with an ultimate goal of developing more effective approaches to limit the morbidity caused by this pathogen. Dr. Cohen's training is in epidemiology and clinical medicine, and his work includes mathematical modeling, fieldwork, and analysis of programmatic data. His research program is currently funded by NIH, US CDC, and Gates Foundation Awards.

  • Associate Professor of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases) and Associate Professor in Pulmonary; Associate Professor of Medicine (Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine)

    Research Interests
    Critical Care; Tuberculosis; Global Health; Mobile Applications

    I am a pulmonary/critical care physician and epidemiologist seeking to improve diagnostic evaluation and case finding for tuberculosis (TB) using translational research and implementation science. 

    I teach a graduate course on implementation science and mentor master's and doctoral students at the Yale School of Public Health. I lead a Fogarty research training program on TB and other pulmonary complications of HIV/AIDS in Uganda.

    I attend in the Medical Intensive Care Unit and the Winchester TB Clinic at Yale-New Haven Hospital as a Yale Medicine physician. I enjoy caring for patients and families, and teaching medical students, residents, and fellows.

  • Burnett and Stender Families Professor of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases); Director of the Center for Infectious Disease Modeling and Analysis (CIDMA)

    Research Interests
    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Africa, Southern; Ecology; Economics; Epidemiologic Methods; Epidemiology; Biological Evolution; HIV; Influenza, Human; Parasitology; Public Health; Tuberculosis; Global Health; Evolution, Planetary; Infectious Disease Medicine
  • Assistant Professor of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases); Associate (Adjunct) Professor of Law, Yale Law School; Co-Director, Global Health Justice Partnership; Co-Director, Collaboration for Research Integrity and Transparency

    Research Interests
    Computer Simulation; Decision Making; Hepatitis C; HIV; Operations Research; Political Systems; Prisoners; Public Policy; Social Justice; Social Medicine; Tuberculosis; United States Food and Drug Administration; Causality; Drug Approval; Drug Users; Social Determinants of Health

    Gregg Gonsalves is an Assistant Professor in Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases as well as an Associate (Adjunct) Professor of Law and Research Scholar in Law at Yale Law School, co-director of the Yale Law School/Yale School of Public Health Global Health Justice Partnership and the Yale Law School/Yale School of Public Health/Yale Medical School Collaboration for Research Integrity and Transparency. His research focuses on the use of quantitative models for improving the response to epidemic diseases. For more than 30 years, he worked on HIV/AIDS and other global health issues with several organizations, including the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power, the Treatment Action Group, Gay Men’s Health Crisis, and the AIDS and Rights Alliance for Southern Africa. He was also a fellow at the Open Society Foundations and in the Department of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School from 2011-2012. He is a 2011 graduate of Yale College and received his PhD from Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences/School of Public Health in 2017. He is a 2018 MacArthur Fellow.

  • Research Scientist in Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases)

    Research Interests
    Attitude; HIV; Psychiatry and Psychology

    Dr. Grau is a clinical psychologist with training in health psychology and expertise in identifying the cognitive and emotional correlates of risk and preventive health behaviors. She has been involved in the fields of HIV and hepatitis prevention research for over two decades during which time she has worked with syringe services programs (SSPs) and community-based organizations in the U.S., Russia, Vietnam, and Ecuador. Dr. Grau has been involved in multisite, longitudinal evaluations of SSPs and public health interventions implemented through SSPs and emergency departments.  She has experience working with sexually active adolescents, minority and substance-using populations, and people who inject drugs and their families. More recently, her research interests have included qualitative and mixed methods studies of the HIV Care Continuum, technology-based interventions to assist in smoking cessation and substance abuse treatment, and the epidemiology of opioid-involved fatalities.  She has also led qualitative studies on such topics as the quality of healthcare delivery, repeat medical hospitalizations, and access to medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder.

  • Professor of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases) and of Pharmacology; Director, Emerging Infections Program

    Research Interests
    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Epidemiology; Foodborne Diseases; Hepatitis C; Injections; Public Health; Russia; Vietnam; Global Health; HIV Infections

    Dr. Heimer's major research efforts include scientific investigation of the mortality and morbidity associated with injection drug use. Areas of investigation include syringe exchange programs, virus survival in syringes, hepatitis B vaccination, hepatitis C transmission risks, overdose prevention and resuscitation, and pharmacological treatment of opiate addiction. His research combines laboratory, operational, behavioral, and structural analyses to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs in preventing the negative medical consequences of injection drug use. Dr. Heimer is a member of Yale’s Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS (CIRA) and former Director of its Interdisciplinary Research Methods Core. His current work focuses on the contexts and consequences of the opioid crisis in CT and the systemic of HIV, viral hepatitis, and injection drug use nationally and globally.

    Dr. Heimer previously served as Principal Investigator of the Yale office of the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program. This Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded program is one of ten programs nationwide that seek to assess, through population-based surveillance, the public health impact of emerging infectious diseases and to evaluate methods for their prevention and control in the community. The Yale program currently focuses on foodborne illnesses, and respiratory illnesses (especially influenza), Lyme and other tickborne diseases, Clostridium difficile, and the prevention of human papillomavirus infections.

    Dr. Heimer received his training in molecular biology and pharmacology at Columbia College (BA) and Yale University (MA, PhD). He began his work on the prevention of HIV among injection drug users in 1990 with an evaluation of the city-run New Haven needle exchange program and his work on emerging infections in 1995 with studies of the tick-borne agent of human ehrlichiosis.

  • Associate Professor of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases); Program Director- BA-BS/MPH Program in Public Health at Yale

    Research Interests
    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Epidemiology; Ethics; HIV; Human Rights; Public Health; Violence; Global Health; Infectious Disease Medicine; Diseases

    Kaveh Khoshnood, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor and Director of Undergraduate Studies at the Yale School of Public Health and core faculty member of the Yale Council on Middle East Studies. He is co-founder of Yale Violence and Health Study Group and a Steering Committee member of the Program on Conflict, Resiliency and Health at the Yale McMillan Center. Dr. Khoshnood is trained as an infectious disease epidemiologist and has more than two decades of domestic and international experience in HIV prevention research among drug users and other at risk populations, including its ethical aspects. Dr. Khoshnood is an investigator on two current projects in Lebanon, a parenting intervention with Palestinian refugees and a population size estimation and bio-behavioral surveillance of populations at risk of HIV/AIDS. Dr. Khoshnood teaches a course at Yale School of Public Health entitled: "Responding to Violent Conflict: Epidemiological Methods & Public Health Interventions” which focuses on how epidemiological methods are applied to understand specific health consequences of violent conflicts, including infectious diseases, mental health, maternal/child health, and chronic health problems. The course has a focus on the Middle East and North Africa region.

  • Professor of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases); Director, Development Core at Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS; Director, HPV Working Group at Yale; Co-Director, CT Emerging Infections Program at Yale

    Research Interests
    Epidemiologic Methods; Epidemiology; HIV; Sexually Transmitted Diseases; Vaccines; Communicable Diseases, Emerging; Qualitative Research; Human papillomavirus 11

    Linda Niccolai is a Professor in the Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases. She currently serves as Co-Director of the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Director of the Development Core for the Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS.

    Her research is primarily focused on sexually transmitted infections (STI), including HIV. Her current research projects include a special focus on human papillomavirus. Specifically, her research is designed to understand uptake and impact of HPV vaccines with an emphasis on addressing health disparities. Her current HIV work is focused on understanding structural and social determinants of risk including mass incarceration, housing instability, and subsidized housing policies. Her research methods include surveillance, behavioral epidemiology, and qualitative approaches. Her current projects are funded by National Institutes of Health and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Linda Niccolai received her Sc.M. at Harvard School of Public Health and her Ph.D. at Tulane University. She is currently on the editorial board for Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and has served as an adviser and reviewer for National Institutes of Health and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conferences and grant programs. In 2004, she was the recipient of the Award for Excellence in Teaching.

  • Director, Yale Institute for Global Health; Associate Dean (Global Health Research), Yale School of Medicine; Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases), Yale School of Medicine; Susan Dwight Bliss Professor of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health

    Dr. Omer has conducted studies in the United States, Guatemala, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, South Africa, and Australia. Dr Omer’s research portfolio includes clinical trials to estimate efficacy of maternal and/or infant influenza, pertussis, polio, measles and pneumococcal vaccines and trials to evaluate drug regimens to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Moreover, he has conducted several studies on interventions to increase immunization coverage and acceptance. Dr Omer’s work has been cited in global and country-specific policy recommendations and has informed clinical practice and health legislation in several countries. He has directly mentored over 100 junior faculty, clinical and research post-doctoral fellows, and PhD and other graduate students.Dr. Omer has published widely in peer reviewed journals including the New England Journal of Medicine, JAMA, Lancet, British Medical Journal, Pediatrics, American Journal of Public Health, and Science and is the author of op-eds for publications such as the New York Times, Politico, and the Washington Post. 

    Dr Omer has received multiple awards –including the Maurice Hilleman Award by the National Foundation of Infectious Diseases for his work on the impact of maternal influenza immunization on respiratory illness in infants younger than 6 months-for whom there is no vaccine. He has served on several advisory panels including the U.S. National Vaccine Advisory Committee, Presidential Advisory Council on Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria -Vaccine Innovation Working Group, and WHO Expert Advisory Group for Healthcare Worker Vaccination. Moreover, he served as an academic affiliate of the Office of Evaluation Sciences –formerly known as the White House Social and Behavioral Sciences Team. Dr Omer has received multiple awards –including the Maurice Hilleman Award by the National Foundation of Infectious Diseases for his work on the impact of maternal influenza immunization on respiratory illness in infants younger than 6 months-for whom there is no vaccine. He has served on several advisory panels including the U.S. National Vaccine Advisory Committee, Presidential Advisory Council on Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria -Vaccine Innovation Working Group, and WHO Expert Advisory Group for Healthcare Worker Vaccination. He has also served as an academic affiliate of the Office of Evaluation Sciences –formerly known as the White House Social and Behavioral Sciences Team.

  • Dean and Anna M.R. Lauder Professor of Public Health; Professor of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine

    Research Interests
    Environment and Public Health; HIV; Public Health; Global Health; Women's Health; Child Health

    Dr. Sten Vermund is a pediatrician and infectious disease epidemiologist focused on diseases of low and middle income countries. His work on HIV-HPV interactions among women in Bronx methadone programs motivated a change in the 1993 CDC AIDS case surveillance definition and inspired cervical cancer screening programs launched within HIV/AIDS programs around the world. The thrust of his research has focused on health care access, adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights, and prevention of  HIV transmission among general and key populations, including mother-to-child.

Secondary and Adjunct Faculty

  • Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases); Director, Clinical and Community Research; Director, HIV in Prisons Program; Director, Community Health Care Van; Academic Icon Professor of Medicine, University of Malaya-Centre of Excellence for Research in AIDS (CERiA)

    Research Interests
    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Behavioral Medicine; Community Medicine; Decision Making; Epidemiology; Hepatitis, Viral, Human; Social Medicine; Global Health; HIV Infections; Cognitive Therapy; AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections; Health Status Disparities; Healthcare Disparities; Infectious Disease Medicine; Community-Based Participatory Research; Chemicals and Drugs; Health Care

    Frederick L. Altice is a professor of Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health and is a clinician, clinical epidemiologist, intervention and implementation science researcher at Yale University School of Medicine and School of Public Health. Dr. Altice’s primary research focuses on interventions and implementation science at the interface between infectious diseases and addiction and he has conducted research in several global health settings. He also has a number of projects working in the criminal justice system, including transitional programs addressing infectious diseases, medication-assisted therapies (methadone, buprenorphine, extended release naltrexone), mental illness, homelessness and social instability. Specific topics include alcohol, opioid and nicotine use disorders on HIV treatment outcomes, HIV and addiction treatment, interface with the criminal justice system, and pharmacokinetic drug interactions between treatment for substance use disorders and antiretroviral and tuberculosis therapy. At a basic level, his research focuses on clinical epidemiology, especially in key populations at risk for HIV (e.g., MSM, TGW, PWID, prisoners, sex workers) and development, an adaptation and evaluation of of biomedical and behavioral interventions to improve treatment outcomes. His research, however, has evolved and included development and testing of mobile technologies (mHealth) to intervene with key populations in more effective ways.  His research is especially concentrated in health services research techniques with a focus on implementation science, seeking to introduce and scale-up evidence-based interventions in numerous contexts. A number of implementation science strategies are underway to examine scale-up of medication-assisted therapies to treat opioid use disorder in community, criminal justice and in primary care settings. Most recently, his work has been augmented through use of decision science techniques to understand and promote patient preferences, including the development of informed and shared decision-making aids. His work has emerged primarily with a global health focus with funded research projects internationally in Malaysia, Ukraine, Central Asia, Peru, and Indonesia. He has participated in projects through the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Agency, Special Projects of National Significance with HRSA, and the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. He is currently also collaborating on projects with the WHO, UNAIDS, USAID, PEPFAR and UNODC. Current internationally funded projects in dedicated research sites that are being conducted in Malaysia, Ukraine, Moldova, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Peru. His research and training sites in Malaysia (2005), Peru (2010) and Ukraine (2005) are dedicated training and research sites for the Global Health Equity Scholars Fogarty Training Program and the Doris Duke International Fellowship program.

  • Waldemar Von Zedtwitz Professor of Medicine (Rheumatology) and Professor of Pathology and of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases); Chief, Section of Rheumatology, Allergy & Immunology, Rheumatology, Allergy, & Immunology

    Research Interests
    Africa; Epidemiology; Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors; Malaria; Pathology; Public Health; Rheumatology; Stem Cells; Global Health; Communicable Diseases, Emerging; Infectious Disease Medicine

    Richard Bucala, MD, PhD, is a Professor of Medicine, Pathology, and Epidemiology & Public Health.  He studies the mechanisms by which protective immune responses lead to immunopathology, focusing on MIF-family cytokines and their genetics, which his group first cloned and characterized experimentally.  Currently, his laboratory is leading multidisciplinary efforts to develop immunotherapies tailored to an individual’s genetic makeup. An anti-MIF developed by the group is undergoing clinical testing in oncology, and an anti-MIF receptor antibody, recently FDA approved, is under evaluation in SLE. Dr. Bucala also is credited with the discovery of the fibrocyte, which is being targeted therapeutically in different fibrosing disorders.  He is a co-founder of Cytokine Networks and of MIFCOR, a biotechnology startup begun as a student-advised project.  Dr. Bucala was elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation and the Association of American Physicians. He is the Editor-in-Chief of Arthritis & Rheumatology and has served on numerous advisory boards for the NIH, the pharmaceutical industry, academia, and private foundations.

  • Professor Emeritus of and Senior Research Scientist in Medicine (Infectious Diseases); Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Epidemiology and Public Health; Senior Research Scientist, Infectious Diseases

    Research Interests
    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Africa, Southern; Epidemiology; HIV; Public Health; Tuberculosis; Global Health; Anti-Retroviral Agents; Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis; Infectious Disease Medicine; Geographicals

    I have focused my career in medicine and infectious diseases on creating new knowledge to improve the health of marginalized and underserved populations in the US and globally. I have been involved in HIV/AIDS care, teaching and research since 1981. More recently, although still working domestically on HIV/AIDS, a major focus my work has been to integrate HIV and TB care and treatment in co infected patients in South Africa with the aim of improving diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of both diseases. This has led to the recognition of the epidemic of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) in Tugela Ferry in rural KwaZuluNatal South Africa and now focuses on the diagnosis, treatment and reduction of transmission of XDR TB and multiple drug resistant (MDR) TB and in HIV co-infected patients. During my career, I have developed multidisciplinary teams and constructed observational studies, clinical trials and operational research in community settings to address complex infectious diseases challenges. I have also served as a mentor for students, residents, fellows and faculty and other health care workers in the US and multiple international sites, with a current and continuing focus in rural South Africa.

  • Professor of Clinical Epidemiology

    Dr. Hecht joined Yale College faculty in 2014 as a lecturer at the Jackson Institute for Global Affairs, where he continues to teach a senior global health capstone course. In 2017, Dr. Hecht was appointed as a clinical professor at the Yale School of Public Health and has since instructed a course for second-year MPH students on improving health reform and health system management, organization, and financing in low and middle-income countries.

    Concurrently, Dr. Robert Hecht is the President of Pharos Global Health Advisors. He has more than 30 years of experience in global health, nutrition and development, in senior management positions with the World Bank, UNAIDS, the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative and Results for Development. Rob is a widely recognized thought leader and policy analyst with a strong track record of advice to top decision makers and dozens of publications related to immunization, HIV, health financing, health sector reform, and nutrition.

  • Dean, School of Nursing, Linda Koch Lorimer Professor of Nursing and Professor of Epidemiology

    Ann Kurth, PhD, CNM, MPH, FAAN is Dean and Linda Koch Lorimer Professor, Yale University School of Nursing, and Professor of Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health. Dr. Kurth is an elected Fellow of the National Academy of Medicine and a member of the 2014-2018 US Preventive Services Task Force, which sets screening and primary care prevention guidelines for the United States. Dr. Kurth is the 2018–2020 chair of the Consortium of Universities for Global Health. An epidemiologist and clinically-trained nurse-midwife, Dr. Kurth’s research focuses on HIV/reproductive health and global health system strengthening. Her work has been funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIAID, NIDA, NIMH, NICHD), the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, UNAIDS, CDC, HRSA, and others, for studies conducted in the United States and internationally.

    Dr. Kurth has published over 200 peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, and scholarly monographs and presented at hundreds of scientific conferences and invited talks. She has received awards for her science and leadership including the Friends of the National Institute of Nursing Research Ada Sue Hinshaw Research Award and the International Nurse Researcher Hall of Fame award from Sigma Theta Tau International. Dr. Kurth is a member of the National Academy of Medicine, the Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering.

  • John F. Enders Professor of Pediatrics (Infectious Disease) and Professor of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases) and of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry; Section Chief, Pediatric Infectious Diseases

    Research Interests
    Biophysics; Pediatrics; Sarcoma, Kaposi; Virology; Epstein-Barr Virus Infections; Infectious Disease Medicine

    Dr. Miller’s laboratory studies the mechanisms underlying the switch between latency and lytic replication of two oncogenic herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Current experiments explore how viral and cellular transcription factors that selectively bind to methylated DNA control expression of viral and cellular genes, how cellular gene expression is selectively inhibited while viral gene expression is enhanced, and how viral DNA replication is regulated by cellular proteins. Recent studies focus on a new class of anti-viral agents that inhibit reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus from latency into lytic infection.

  • Professor; Professor of Pediatrics (Infectious Diseases), Pediatrics; Professor of Public Health, School of Public Health; Professor of Management, School of Management; Professor of Pharmacology, Molecular Medicine, Pharmacology, and Physiology

    Research Interests
    Brazil; Ghana; Hepatitis C; HIV; Pediatrics; Pharmacology; Molecular Epidemiology; HIV Reverse Transcriptase; Infectious Disease Medicine

    The Paintsil laboratory focuses on increasing our understanding of the host determinants of individual differences in response to antiretroviral therapy; biomarkers and pathogenesis of increasing incidence of cancers in HIV treatment-experienced individuals.